Sunday, June 14, 2009

Center For Watershed Protection: Helpful Articles

'The only consistent financial “loser” in the watershed protection balance sheet is local government.'

Years ago, I found the CWP website and read a number of articles posted there.
Then, somehow, I lost or forgot that link and was left to scramble to try and reconstruct information from memory to use in our efforts to protect the Lake Whatcom Reservoir.
Now, I've relocated this updated website and found most of the information I had tried to recollect, intact!.

Mind you, none of this was written specifically for Lake Whatcom, but it might have well been, because so much of is directly applicable.
The problem of protecting watersheds is a universal one, shared by everyone in one form of severity -urgency- or another.
And, so are the economics associated with addressing this problem, whether it is a drinking water supply, recreational waterbody or farm pond.
By and large, the economics always seem to strongly favor prudent protection over expensive, after-the-fact clean-ups.
This so-called 'precautionary principle' was best defined by old Ben Franklin's 'a stitch in time, saves nine.'

So, I'm pleased to again cite the CWP website, as well as a list of articles that ought to be helpful to those trying to learn and teach others about watershed protection.

In particular, this article on the Economics of Watershed Protection seems appropriate and timely, considering the important TMDL response that will be due from the City and County later this year:

The Practice of Watershed Protection Articles

Below are articles from The Practice of Watershed Protection that pertain specifically to this topic. To purchase the hardbound book or CD of these articles, please visit our store. For citing these articles, add the article author and title to the following: The Practice of Watershed Protection. 2000. T. Schueler and H. Holland, eds. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD. Authors of each individual article are listed as initials at the end of the article, with full names as follows: Carol Anne Barth (CAB), Ken Brown (KBB), Ted Brown (EWB), Whitney Brown (WEB), Deborah Caraco (DSC), Richard Claytor (RAC), Hye Yeong Kwon (HYK), Jennifer McClean (JMC), Ron Ohrel (RLO), Janet Pelley (JP), Eric Reeves (ER), Chris Swann (CS) and Jennifer Zielinski (JAZ). To view comprehensive list of all downloadable articles from this book, visit the Practice of Watershed Protection Articles page.

Section 1: Stormwater Pollution
1. The Importance of Imperviousness
2. Hydrocarbon Hotspots in the Urban Landscape: Can They Be Controlled?
3. Influence of Snowmelt Dynamics on Stormwater Runoff Quality
4. Nutrient Movement from the Lawn to the Stream?
5. Urban Pesticides: From the Lawn to the Stream
6. Cars are Leading Source of Metal Loads in California
7. Sources of Urban Stormwater Pollutants Defined in Wisconsin
8. Is Rooftop Runoff Really Clean?
9. First Flush of Stormwater Pollutants Investigated in Texas
10. Dry Weather Flow in Urban Streams
11. Multiple Indicators Used to Evaluate Stream Conditions in Milwaukee
12. Characterization of Heavy Metals in Santa Clara Valley
13. Simple and Complex Stormwater Pollutant Load Models Compared
14. Impact of Suspended and Deposited Sediments
15. Stormwater Pollution Source Areas Isolated in Michigan
16. Diazinon Sources in Runoff From the San Francisco Bay Region
17. Microbes in Urban Watersheds: Concentrations, Sources and Pathways

Section 2: Habitat and Biodiversity
18. Effects of Urbanization on Small Streams in the Puget Sound Ecoregion
19. Dynamics of Urban Stream Channel Enlargement
20. Stream Channel Geometry Used to Assess Land Use Impacts in the Northwest
21. Habitat and Biological Impairment in Delaware Headwater Streams
22. Comparison of Forest, Urban and Agricultural Streams in North Carolina
23. Historical Change in a Warmwater Fish Community in an Urbanizing Watershed
24. Fish Dynamics in Urban Streams Near Atlanta, Georgia
25. Housing Density and Urban Land Use As Stream Quality Indicators
26. A Study of Paired Catchments Within Peavine Creek, Georgia

Section 3: Watershed Protection Tool #1 - Watershed Planning
27. The Tools of Watershed Protection
28. Basic Concepts in Watershed Planning
29. Crafting Better Watershed Plans
30. Economics of Watershed Protection
31. Microbes and Urban Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Managers
32. Methods for Estimating Effective Impervious Area of Urban Watersheds

Section 4: Watershed Protection Tool #2 - Land Conservation
33. Impact of Stormwater on Puget Sound Wetlands
34. Loss of White Cedar in New Jersey Linked to Stormwater Runoff
35. Wetter Is Not Always Better: Flood Tolerance of Woody Species
36. The Compaction of Urban Soils
37. Can Urban Soil Compaction Be Reversed
38. Choosing Appropriate Vegetation for Salt-Impacted Roadways

Section 5: Watershed Protection Tool #3 - Aquatic Buffers
39. The Architecture of Urban Stream Buffers
40. Urbanization, Stream Buffers and Stewardship in Maryland
41. Invisibility of Stream and Wetland Buffers in the Field
42. Techniques for Improving the Survivorship of Riparian Plantings
43. Impact of Riparian Forest Cover on Mid-Atlantic Stream Ecosystems
44. The Return of the Beaver

Section 6: Watershed Protection Tool #4 - Better Site Design
45. An Introduction to Better Site Design
46. The Benefits of Better Site Design in Residential Subdivisions
47. The Benefits of Better Site Design in Commercial Development
48. Changing Development Rules in Your Community
49. The Economics of Urban Sprawl
50. Skinny Streets and One-Sided Sidewalks: A Strategy for Not Paving Paradise
51. Use of Open Space Design to Protect Watersheds

Section 7: Watershed Protection Tool #5 - Erosion and Sediment Control
52. Muddy Water In; Muddy Water Out?
53. Clearing and Grading Regulations Exposed
54. Practical Tips for Construction Site Phasing
55. Keeping Soil in Its Place
56. Strengthening Silt Fences
57. The Limits of Settling
58. Improving the Trapping Efficiency of Sediment Basins
59. Performance of Sediment Controls at Maryland Construction Sites
60. Construction Practices: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
61. Delaware Program Improves Construction Site Inspection
62. Enforcing Sediment Regulations in North Carolina

Section 8: Watershed Protection Tool #6 - Stormwater Management Practices General Background on Stormwater Treatment
63. Why Stormwater Matters
64. Comparative Pollutant Removal Capability of Stormwater Treatment Practices
65. Irreducible Pollutant Concentrations Discharged From Stormwater Practices
66. Stormwater Strategies for Arid and Semiarid Watersheds
67. Microbes and Urban Watersheds: Ways to Kill `Em
68. The Economics of Stormwater Treatment: An Update
69. Trends in Managing Stormwater Utilities

70. Pond/Wetland System Proves Effective in New Zealand
71. Performance of Stormwater Ponds and Wetlands in Winter
72. Performance of a Stormwater Pond/Wetland System in Colorado
73. Performance of Two Wet Ponds in the Piedmont of North Carolina
74. Performance of Stormwater Ponds in Central Texas
75. Pollutant Removal Dynamics of Three Canadian Wet Ponds
76. A Tale of Two Regional Wet Extended Detention Ponds
77. Performance of a Dry Extended Pond in North Carolina
78. Influence of Groundwater on Performance of Stormwater Ponds in Florida
79. Environmental Impact of Stormwater Ponds
80. Pollutant Dynamics of Pond Muck
81. The Pond Premium
82. Water Reuse Ponds Developed in Florida
83. Trace Metal Bio-accumulation in the Aquatic Community of Stormwater Ponds
84. Human and Amphibian Preferences for Dry and Wet Stormwater Pond Habitat
85. Dragonfly Naiads as an Indicator of Pond Water Quality
86. Establishing Wildflower Meadows in New Jersey Detention Basins
87. Persistence of Wetland Plantings Along the Aquatic Bench of Stormwater Ponds

88. Return to Lake McCarrons
89. Nutrient Dynamics and Plant Diversity in Stormwater Wetlands
90. Adequate Treatment Volume Critical in Virginia Stormwater Wetland
91. Pollutant Removal by Constructed Wetlands in an Illinois River Floodplain
92. Pollutant Dynamics Within Stormwater Wetlands: I. Plant Uptake
93. Pollutant Dynamics Within Stormwater Wetlands: II. Organic Matter
94. Pollutant Removal Capability of a "Pocket" Wetland
95. Performance of Gravel-based Wetland in a Cold, High Altitude Climate
96. The StormTreat System: A New Technology for Treating Stormwater Runoff
97. Vegetated Rock Filters Used to Treat Stormwater Pollutants in Florida
98. Practical Tips for Establishing Freshwater Wetlands
99. Broad-leaf Arrowhead: A Workhorse of the Wetlands
100. Mosquitos in Constructed Wetlands: A Management Bugaboo?

101. Failure Rates of Infiltration Practices Assessed in Maryland
102. Longevity of Infiltration Basins Assessed in Puget Sound
103. A Second Look at Porous Pavement/Underground Recharge
104. The Risk of Groundwater Contamination from Infiltration of Stormwater

105. Developments in Sand Filter Technology to Treat Stormwater Runoff
106. Further Developments in Sand Filter Technology
107. Performance of Delaware Sand Filter Assessed
108. Field Evaluation of a Stormwater Sand Filter
109. Innovative Leaf Compost System Used to Filter Runoff in Northwest
110. Bioretention as a Stormwater Treatment Practice
111. Multi-Chamber Treatment Train Developed for Stormwater Hot Spots

Open Channels and Swales
112. Performance of Biofilters in the Pacific Northwest
113. Runoff and Groundwater Dynamics of Two Swales in Florida
114. Performance of Grassed Swales Along East Coast Highways
115. Pollutant Removal Pathways in Florida Swales
116. Ditches or Biological Filters? Classifying Pollutant Removal in Open Channels
117. Performance of Dry and Wet Biofilters Investigated in Seattle
118. Level Spreader/Filter Strip System Assessed in Virginia

119. Performance of Oil/Grit Separators in Removing Pollutants at Small Sites
120. Performance of a Proprietary Stormwater Treatment Device: The Stormceptor
121. New Developments in Street Sweeper Technology
122. The Value of More Frequent Cleanouts of Storm Drain Inlets

Section 9: Watershed Protection Tool #7 - Control of Non-Stormwater Discharges
123. Dealing with Septic System Impacts
124. Recirculating Sand Filters: An Alternative to Conventional Septic Systems
125. Use of Tracers to Identify Sources of Contamination in Dry Weather Flow

Section 10: Watershed Protection Tool #8 - Watershed Stewardship

Watershed Education
126. Understanding Watershed Behavior
127. On Watershed Education

Watershed Advocacy
128. Choosing the Right Watershed Management Structure

Pollution Prevention at Home
129. The Peculiarities of Perviousness
130. Toward a Low Input Lawn
131. Homeowner Survey Reveals Lawn Management Practices in Virginia
132. Nitrate Leaching Potential From Lawns and Turfgrass
133. Insecticide Impact on Urban and Suburban Wildlife
134. Minimizing the Impact of Golf Courses on Streams
135. Groundwater Impacts of Golf Course Development in Cape Cod

Pollution Prevention at Work
136. Practical Pollution Prevention Practices Outlined for West Coast Service Stations
137. Practical Pollution Prevention Emphasized for Industrial Stormwater
138. Milwaukee Survey Used to Design Pollution Prevention Program
139. Rating Deicing Agents: Road Salt Stands Firm
140. Pollution Prevention for Auto Recyclers

Watershed Monitoring
141. An Introduction to Stormwater Indicators

Stream Restoration
142. Assessing the Potential for Urban Watershed Restoration
143. Stormwater Retrofits: Tools for Watershed Enhancement
144. Sligo Creek: Comprehensive Stream Restoration
145. Bioengineering in Four Mile Run, Virginia
146. Coconut Rolls Used For Natural Streambank Stabilization
147. Pipers Creek: Salmon Habitat Restoration in the Pacific Northwest
148. The Longevity of Instream Habitat Structures
149. Stream Daylighting in Berkeley, CA Creek
150. Parallel Pipe Systems as a Stream Protection Technique